Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Lead Tetramethyl
      Lead Tetraethyl
      Lead Tetraphenyl
      Lead Ethoxide
      Lead Fluoride
      Lead Tetrafluoride
      Hydrofluoplumbic Acid
      Lead Chloride
      Lead Chloride Double Salts
      Basic Lead Chlorides
      Lead Tetrachloride
      Ammonium Plumbichloride
      Lead Chlorite
      Lead Chlorate
      Lead Perchlorate
      Lead Dibromide
      Double Salts of Lead Bromide
      Basic Lead Bromides
      Lead Bromate
      Lead Iodide
      Lead Iodide Complex Salts
      Basic Lead Iodides
      Lead Tetra-iodide
      Lead Iodate
      Lead Periodates
      Lead Suboxide
      Lead Monoxide
      Lead Hydroxides
      Lead Dioxide
      Plumbic Acids
      Hexahydroxyplumbic Acid
      Colloidal Plumbic Acid
      Potassium Plumbate
      Lead Plumbate
      Calcium Orthoplumbate
      Lead Orthoplumbate
      Red Lead
      Metaplumbic Acid
      Calcium Metaplumbate
      Lead Metaplumbate
      Basic Lead Plumbate
      Lead Sulphide
      Lead Sulphohalides
      Lead Polysulphide
      Lead Sulphite
      Lead Sulphates
      Lead Sulphate
      Basic Lead Sulphates
      Lead Hydrogen Sulphate
      Plumbic Sulphate
      Lead Persulphate
      Lead Thiosulphate
      Lead Dithionate
      Lead Selenide
      Lead Selenite
      Lead Selenate
      Lead Telluride
      Lead Tellurite
      Lead Azide
      Lead Azoimide
      Lead Hydrazoate
      Lead Imide
      Lead Hyponitrite
      Lead Nitrites
      Lead Nitrate
      Lead saltpetre
      Basic Lead Nitrates
      Lead Hypophosphite
      Lead Phosphite
      Lead Orthophosphate
      Lead Monohydrogen Phosphate
      Lead Dihydrogen Phosphate
      Lead Pyrophosphate
      Lead Metaphosphate
      Lead Arsenite
      Lead Orthoarsenate
      Lead Hydrogen Arsenate
      Lead Pyroarsenate
      Lead Antimonate
      Lead Carbonate
      White Lead
      Lead Formate
      Lead Acetate
      Sugar of Lead
      Complex Lead Acetates
      Plumbic Acetate
      Lead Tetra-acetate
      Lead Oxalate
      Lead Tartrate
      Lead Silicates
      Lead Borates
      Normal Lead Chromate
      Lead Dichromate
      Basic Lead Chromate
      Lead Molybdate
      Lead Tungstate
      Lead Metatungstate
      Lead Diuranate
      Lead Peruranate
    PDB 1afv-3qjk

Basic Lead Chlorides

Various basic lead chlorides exist. Owing to the tendency of lead to form basic salts, basic chlorides are more common in nature than the normal salt. Thus the mineral matlockite is PbCl2.PbO, and is formed artificially by igniting the normal chloride in the air until no more fumes are evolved. The mineral mendipite PbCl2.2PbO is also well known. When lead chloride is fused with lead oxide a yellow product results, which is used as a pigment under the name Cassel yellow; it has approximately the composition PbCl2.7PbO, but is not a single substance. Various complex basic. chlorides are formed when chlorine and air act on litharge at high temperature; but they are probably mixtures. The basic lead chlorides have been investigated by Ruer, who has traced the freezing-point curve of fused mixtures of lead oxide and lead chloride, and concludes that only the following three anhydrous basic chlorides exist:

  1. PbCl2.PbO, which occurs naturally as matlockite. This compound crystallises in long, thin needles, and cannot be melted without decomposition, but decomposes at 524° C., yielding the second basic chloride.
  2. PbCl2.2PbO, which exists naturally as mendipite, forms long, shining needles, that melt, undecomposed, at 693° C.
  3. PbCl2.4PbO has not been found in nature, but crystallises in yellow plates, and yields a bright yellow powder. It melts, unchanged, at 711° C.

Several hydrated basic lead chlorides, or lead hydroxychlorides, exist, among them being the mineral laurionite PbCl2.PbO.H2O or Pb(OH)Cl. An artificial form of this substance was at one time prepared by precipitating lead chloride solution with lime water. The process was patented by Pattinson in 1849, and the product used as a substitute for white lead. This compound, as well as PbCl2.3PbO.H2O, appears also to be formed when lead chloride is shaken with water and the hydrated oxide Pb3O2(OH)2; PbCl2.3PbO is also supposed to be produced in Scheele's process for manufacturing caustic soda by the action of litharge on sodium chloride solution, thus:

2NaCl + 4PbO + H2O ⇔ 2NaOH + PbCl2.3PbO,

but according to Berl and Austerweil the compound PbCl2.4PbO.2H2O is produced when a normal solution of sodium chloride is employed, thus:

2NaCl + 5PbO + H2O ⇔ 2NaOH + PbCl2.4PbO.

The hydroxychloride formed in Scheele's process turns yellow when heated till it is anhydrous. In 1787 Turner took out a patent for preparing caustic soda by Scheele's reaction, and the ignited basic chloride was employed as a pigment under the name of Turner's yellow, or patent yellow.

Stromholm has prepared the salt 2PbCl2.6PbO.H2O, and finds that it crystallises in yellow needles; he has also obtained the salt PbCl2.6PbO.2H2O, crystallised in needles which on heating change in colour from grey to yellow.

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